The sampling plan for food and microbiology often includes the following sampling points: raw materials, production line (semi-finished products, environment), finished products, stock samples, retail shops, or wholesale markets, import or export ports.
1. Sampling of raw materials includes raw materials used in food production, additives, auxiliary materials and production water.
2. Production line samples are samples taken from different processing stages of the food production process, including semi-finished products, processing tables, instrument surfaces in contact with the food being processed, and operating appliances. The collection of production line samples can determine the source of bacterial contamination and can be used by food processing companies to understand and control the hygiene of their products, and can be used to determine the key control points for specific products and to validate HACCP. Samples of the environment (e.g. floors, walls, ceilings and air) can also be taken before, during and after the production process to check the hygiene of the processing environment. Since food safety is very important, microbiology in food industry is necessary.
3. Sampling and testing of stock samples can determine the changes in microorganisms during the shelf life of the product, and also indirectly verify whether the shelf life of the product is reasonable.
4. The test results of samples from retail shops or wholesale markets can reflect the microbiological changes in the product during the circulation process and can provide feedback for improving the processing of the product.
5. Samples for import or export are usually taken and tested in accordance with the contract signed by the importer or exporter. However, special attention should be paid to the fact that the microbiological indicators of imported and exported food must meet the requirements of the import and export contract or the terms of the letter of credit, and the relevant legal requirements of the importing country, such as that many countries in the world prohibit the import of food containing pathogenic bacteria.